Sports Surfaces: A History
Jake Watkins provides an overview of the types of playing surfaces that have been used in sports history.
Throughout history, different sports have been played on a variety of different surfaces. The surface upon which a sport is played will have a significant impact on the experience of the players. Different surfaces have been used for different purposes - some will allow games to be played under conditions that would otherwise render them unplayable and others will provide a higher level of comfort for the player. Take a look over the types of surfaces that have been used in sports history.
The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Many of today's popular sports have been played for hundreds of years. A good place to start is by looking at what they did with their surfaces back then. Methods were very different, and here are some examples of how sports surfaces were maintained back in the 17th and 18th centuries:
Michigan State University has conducted an interesting study, which helps to provide some insight into the methods of the past and illustrates the origins of modern methods and ideas. Without modern technology, maintenance would have been a lot harder than it is today, and they would have been able to use much other than natural surfaces.
Early Artificial Pitches
From the 1970s to the 1980s, respected sporting organisations started to make use of artificial pitches. However, the response from players around the world was mostly negative. Herman Edwards (formerly of the NFL) commented that the artificial pitches felt like playing on "concrete" which reflected his discomfort.
Conversely, Dan Dierdorf (also of the NFL) expressed that he appreciated the additional traction which artificial pitches provide. But while his perception was not entirely negative, he also explained that they would "[tear] up your skin if you fell on [them]". He explained that later health concerns associated with artificial pitches would have swayed his judgement, were they better known at the time.
Used by Respected Bodies
Artificial turf has gained recognition by several respected sporting bodies. Here are a few examples of the approaches taken by different organisations:
Recycled Artificial Pitches
In modern times, artificial pitches are often made of recycled rubber to save resources. However, there have been concerns that these might be putting players at increased cancer risk. There have been a few prominent cases of this:
These are just three cases, though they are concerning. When deciding upon the best surface for your team to play upon, it would be wise to research the materials involved in the creation of your surfaces. You do not want to risk exposing your team to anything harmful.
2015 Women’s World Cup
The synthetic surfaces used in the 2015 Women's World Cup were the catalyst of controversy. In that year, the event was hosted in Canada and, as a result, it was entirely carried out on artificial turf. The reasoning for this was that the climate in Canada meant that a conventional soccer field was not an easy option.
The players were particularly unhappy that they were forced to play so regularly on an uncomfortable, artificial turf and so they threatened legal action. There were even accusations that forcing the players to use artificial grass was a violation of Canadian Human Rights. Ultimately, the lawsuits against FIFA were dropped, and the tournament proceeded without issue.
Synthetic Surfaces in the Present and Future
While there have been issues with synthetic sports surfaces, work on improving them continues to this day. There are two main areas in which improvement is needed:
Once these issues have been tackled, synthetic sporting surfaces will probably become more popular, as their benefits will outweigh their weaknesses. They can be used to boost your performance, provide a useful surface in difficult climates, and reduce the cost of maintenance.
Many different types of surfaces have been used in sports throughout the years, and other organisations have taken different approaches to this. Natural pitches always seem to be the most desirable, but artificial turf has been convenient when that has not been possible. As the technology behind them improves, artificial pitches are likely to see much more use as the positive aspects begin to outweigh the dwindling negatives.
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About the Author
Jake Watkins is a freelance writer from the UK. Previously a blogger for a content marketing agency, Jake has written for lots of leading businesses in the UK. He prides himself on providing insightful information. In his spare time, Jake enjoys learning more about the intricacies of sport and hiking in the hills. You can follow him on Twitter.