Sports Coach Logo Sports Coach Training Principles Fitness Components



text Translator



site search facility





Six of the best to flatten your belly

Patrick Dale reveals the secrets for developing a 'six-pack' to be proud of

A flat, toned midsection - for many the epitome of health and fitness. No other muscle group has the sex appeal and aesthetic allure of a well-conditioned "six-pack". Like most things worth having, developing a great set of abdominals is not easy, but it is possible to achieve success if we apply ourselves and exercise not just our bodies but our minds also. It is not just about training hard - but training smart.

Many people in the pursuit of abdominal perfection spend too much time focusing on the rectus abdominis (located on the front of the torso, running from sternum to pubis) and completely neglect the other components of the mid-section. This is like trying to develop the biceps but not the triceps but still expecting to build a big, strong, functional arm. No matter how hard we try, this approach will limit our success and minimize the benefits we experience. Other common mistakes in abdominal training include the use of ultra-high reps in the hope of "spot reducing", using insufficient loading for fear of making the abdominal muscles "thick", using abdominal cradles to "safely" work the mid-section, ignoring the functions of the mid-section, not using enough variety in abdominal exercise selection and training the abdominals too often.

The core, as the mid-section is known, is made up of several muscles, all of which deserve our attention if we are to develop a well-balanced, functional and attractive set of abdominal muscles. Whilst it is not necessary to know the names of all these muscles to be able to exercise them effectively, it is worth casting an eye over the core's components, so you can dazzle your friends with your new-found anatomy and physiology knowledge!

Muscle Location Function
Rectus abdominis Front of torso Flexion of the spine, lateral flexion of the spine, e.g. crunches and side bends
Erector Spinae Back of spine Extension of the spine, lateral flexion of the spine, e.g. back extensions and side bends
Internal Obliques Side of torso Rotation of the spine, lateral flexion of the spine, e.g. twisting crunches
External Obliques Side of torso Rotation of the spine, lateral flexion of the spine, e.g. twisting crunches
Transverse abdominis Around internal organs Compression of the abdomen, drawing in of navel, e.g. planks

Because of the different functions of the core musculature, it is necessary to train the midsection with a multitude of exercise to ensure balanced development which will ensure both good aesthetics and function. In other words, as well as looking good (aesthetics), they will work well (function). Many abdominal routines are "all show, but no go" whereas we ideally want to develop both show and go simultaneously! The functions of the core can be divided into six specific movement patterns (hence the title of this article!) which need to be included when designing a core conditioning routine. Now, do not worry if the list of movements seems dauntingly long or complicated, later in the article, I will show you how to integrate these exercises into your current routine…

Movement Pattern Example exercise
Flexion of spine - lifting shoulders Crunches, sit-ups,
Flexion of spine - lifting hips Reverse crunches, hanging leg raises
Extension of spine Dorsal raises, back extension machine
Rotation of spine Russian twists, cable wood chops
Lateral (side) flexion of the spine Side bends, side planks
Bracing/compression of abdominals Planks, kneeling on a Swiss ball

As with all fitness training, whether it is bodybuilding, cardiovascular endurance, strength or flexibility orientated, there is no single "golden" routine that guarantees never-ending results. To stimulate the improvements, we seek from our bodies. We need to constantly challenge ourselves to work to higher levels of performance and intensity. The human body adapts very quickly to any stress that it is exposed to and, as a result, needs to be exposed to progressive overload to be stimulated to change positively. This means that, as our core conditioning improves, we must endeavour to increase the intensity of the exercises we choose to perform.

When considering the merits of a particular core exercise, it is vitally important to determine if we can make the movement more demanding as we improve the condition of the target musculature. If the answer is a resounding "no" then there are better exercises for us to choose! A good example of poor core exercise is the old gym favourite the abdominal cradle.

With a little bit of practice, it is possible to perform hundreds of reps using this device which uses a lot of our valuable training time but delivers very little in the way of progressive overload and therefore improvements in core conditioning. The abdominal cradle is an acceptable exercise for a complete beginner, but after a few short weeks, our newbie will have outgrown this exercise and will need to do something more challenging to develop their fitness level further. There are several changes we can utilize when progressing an exercise, and by manipulating these "training variables", we can ensure we keep improving the condition of our target.

  • Increase external load (e.g. use a medicine ball, cable or dumbbell) to increase strength demand
  • Increase volume of exercise (more sets or more reps) to increase muscular endurance demand
  • Move more slowly (reduce tempo) to increase time under tension (TUT)
  • Progress from a stable to an unstable training surface (e.g. use a Swiss ball or Bosu) to challenge the nervous system
  • Introduce static holds at a point of peak contraction to extend the duration of the set
  • Reduce rest time between sets, e.g. from 60 seconds to 45 seconds to challenge recovery mechanisms
  • Increase complexity/technical difficulty of the exercise, e.g. progressing from a floor exercise to a standing exercise
  • Increase the speed to develop greater muscular force/power
  • Group exercises into "supersets" or circuits, e.g. alternate between Swiss ball crunches and back extensions
  • Perform multiple exercises per function of the core musculature, e.g. side plank followed by side bends

As a general rule of thumb, if it is possible to perform more than 20 reps of any given exercise in perfect form, it is time to use one of the training variables to bring the rep countdown. Do not waste time doing hundreds of reps of any core exercise … treat your abs like any other muscle group and keep the rep count in between 6 to 20 for maximum results in minimal time! There are several options we can use for introducing our new "smart core" work into our weekly training programme. As we mentioned earlier, there is no "golden routine" that guarantees results. It is a matter of deciding which option works best for you.

Option 1

Perform all core movements in a single session 2-3 times per week, completing 1-2 sets of 6-20 reps, one exercise per movement pattern.

Option 2

Divide the six movements into two groups of three and perform one list on one day of your training week, e.g. Monday, and the other list later the same week, e.g. Thursday. Complete 1-2 exercises per movement pattern, 2-3 sets per exercise of 6-20 reps

Option 3

Divide the six movements into three groups of two and perform one pair on Monday, one pair on Wednesday and one pair on Friday. Perform 1-3 exercises per movement pattern, 2-4 sets per exercise of 6-20 reps

Option 4

Perform one movement per day, six days a week. Perform 2-4 exercises per movement pattern, 3-5 sets per exercise, 6-20 reps per set.

So, there we go - you now have all the information you need to create your "six of the best" core conditioning programme which will speed you on your way to developing that fitness Holy of Holies … the six-pack. Good luck and train both hard and smart.

Article Reference

This article first appeared in:

  • DALE, P. (2007) Six of the best to flatten your belly. Brian Mackenzie's Successful Coaching, (ISSN 1745-7513/ 41/ April), p. 10-12

Page Reference

If you quote information from this page in your work, then the reference for this page is:

  • DALE, P. (2007) Six of the best to flatten your belly [WWW] Available from: [Accessed

About the Author

Patrick Dale has 15 years of fitness industry experience. He has a wide and varied sporting history, having participated at a high level in athletics, rugby, rock climbing, trampolining, triathlon, weightlifting and bodybuilding.