Profile of a young athlete
Brian Mackenzie explores the physical development of young athletes and what we need to take into consideration when coaching them.
Young athletes are physically developing, from early childhood to late adolescence. This means they have different capabilities for, and adaptations to, exercise and for this reason, young athlete training programs should not be just scaled down versions of adult training programs. The fastest rate of growth occurs in the first two years, the growth rate then slows until the adolescent spurt when the growth rate increases again. The adolescent spurt lasts approximately two years and takes place, on average, at 10 to 12 years for girls and 12 to 14 for boys. Growth rate then decreases until full height is reached. Muscle mass increases steadily until puberty, at which point boys show faster muscle growth. The hormonal changes at puberty also affect body composition in terms of fat.
Most athletic females, post-puberty, tend to keep body fat at around 18% (Wilmore & Costill, 1994). Any lower than 12% body fat for females can be considered unhealthy in terms of maintaining bone density and disrupting hormone levels, which may increase the risk of stress fractures. Coaches need to make female athletes aware that until they are 19, they will steadily gain in muscle and so will naturally be gaining weight and that by eating the right kinds of foods is the way to avoid unwanted weight gain.
Potential growth-related injuries
Bones develop from a cartilage growth plate, called epiphysial plates, at each end of the bone shaft. These growth plates divide the calcified head of the bone (epiphysis) and the calcified shaft (diaphysis). The bone lengthens as cartilage is calcified into bone on the diaphysial border, thus lengthening the shaft. At the same time, cartilage continues to grow on the epiphysial border, so the epiphysial plates retain a constant width of cartilage throughout. Growth ends when the plate eventually calcifies. The changes in the female body shape during the growth spurt have its particular injury risks. The hips widen, placing the femur at a greater inward angle. During running or walking, this increased femur angle leads to a greater inward rotation at the knee and foot. This rotation can result in an injury called chondromalacia patella, which occurs when the kneecap does not run smoothly over the knee joint and pain is caused at the front of the knee. Appropriate preventive training to avoid chondromalacia patella would be to strengthen the vastus medialis muscle, the lower abdominals, obliques (side of stomach), hip abductor and hip external rotator muscles. Traction injuries are another type of injury associated with bone growth. They are caused by repetitive loading while the tendon is sensitive to stress as the bones and tendons are fusing.
Traction injuries occur at different sites at different stages of growth.
The only cure for these traction injuries is rest.
Exercise does not stunt or promote growth in terms of height, but it does thicken the bones by increasing mineral deposits (Wilmore & Costill, 1994). Growing bones are sensitive to stress so repetitive loading should be avoided. The epiphysial plate is susceptible to injury and therefore a fracture to the epiphysial plate prior to full growth could be a serious injury as it could disrupt bone growth. A more common kind of epiphysial plate injury and the one coaches must take care not to cause, is called epiphysitis. This is a repetitive strain injury which occurs when excessive loads are placed on the tendons that attach to the epiphysis, causing an inflammatory response. In extreme cases, this type of injury can result in a separation of the epiphysis from the epiphysial plate. The most common epiphysitis, called Little Leaguer's Elbow, occurs mostly in the USA among young baseball pitchers.
Strength increases with age because of body growth and the development of the neuromuscular system. From research Weltman et al. (1986) carried out on the effects of resistance training on young athletes, it would appear that strength improvements are possible. If coaches are to place young athletes on strength training programs, then they must ensure that the young athletes:
Code of conduct for coaches working with young athletes
As coaches of young athletes, we need to ensure that every child or young person who takes part in athletics should be able to participate in a fun and safe environment and be protected from neglect and physical, sexual and emotional abuse. To ensure that forms of abuse are prevented and to help protect coaches who work with young athletes the following guidelines should be considered:
It is recommended that you contact the national governing body for your sport to obtain a copy of their codes of contact for coaches working with young athletes.
Aerobic and anaerobic development
The aerobic ability of young athletes can be developed so it makes aerobic training worthwhile since it will improve their performance. Anaerobic training is of limited use to young athletes, as they possess little anaerobic capacity. Training for aerobic and anaerobic endurance is best left until the young athlete reaches adolescence. The development of sport-specific skills along with agility and coordination are important areas to focus on when coaching young athletes.
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About the Author
Brian Mackenzie is a British Athletics level 4 performance coach and a coach tutor/assessor. He has been coaching sprint, middle distance and combined event athletes for the past 30+ years and has 45+ years' experience as an endurance athlete.
The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic: